The United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945. It is composed of 193 member states and has a mandate to promote international cooperation and resolve conflicts between nations. The UN has six main organs, including the General Assembly, the Security Council, the International Court of Justice, the Secretariat, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council.
The General Assembly is the main deliberative body of the UN, made up of all 193 member states. It meets annually to discuss and coordinate on a wide range of international issues, including peace and security, economic development, and human rights.
The Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, 5 of which are permanent (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and 10 of which are elected for two-year terms. The Security Council has the power to impose sanctions, authorize the use of force, and establish peacekeeping missions.
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial body of the UN and settles legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.
The Secretariat is the UN's executive arm and is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day work of the organization. It is headed by the Secretary-General, who is elected by the General Assembly for a five-year term.
The Economic and Social Council is responsible for promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It has 54 members, elected for three-year terms.
The Trusteeship Council was responsible for overseeing the administration of trust territories and ensuring their transition to self-governance. It has completed its work and is now inactive.
The UN also has a number of specialized agencies and programs, such as the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which work on specific issues related to the UN's mandate.