Iraq's national flag is a horizontal tricolor with red, white, and black stripes. The flag's colors are derived from the Arab Liberation Flag and reflect pan-Arab colors. The phrase “God is the greatest” is written in green Kufic calligraphy in the center of the flag.
The flag was officially established on July 31, 1963, but it has seen various changes since then, including the insertion of three green stars in 1963 and the replacement of those stars in 2008 with the words “God is the greatest” in green. The flag is used in Kurdistan, an autonomous territory with its own local administration and parliament, as well as its own flag, known as the flag of Kurdistan, which was adopted in 1992.
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Iraq is a country located in Western Asia. It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital and largest city of Iraq is Baghdad. The country has a diverse population, including Iraqi Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidis, Mandaeans, Persians, and Shabakis. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, and other languages recognized in specific regions include Neo-Aramaic, Turkish, and Armenian.
Iraq has a rich history dating back to the 6th millennium BC, when the fertile alluvial plains between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, known as Mesopotamia, gave rise to some of the world's earliest cities, civilizations, and empires. The region was a “Cradle of Civilization” that saw the independent development of a writing system, mathematics, timekeeping, a calendar, astrology, and a law code. In the 7th century AD, the region was conquered by Arab Muslims, and Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. During the Islamic Golden Age, the city evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center, with a reputation for its academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom.
The modern history of Iraq began in 1920, when the British Mandate for Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. In 1921, a British-backed kingdom was established in Iraq under Faisal I. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic was created. From 1968 to 2003, Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, leading to a war that lasted almost eight years and ended in a stalemate with significant losses for both countries. In 2003, the US and its allies invaded Iraq and removed the Ba'ath Party from power. In 2005, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in the country.
Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic, with the president serving as the head of state and the prime minister serving as the head of government. The country has two deliberative bodies, the Council of Representatives and the Council of Union, and an independent judiciary. Iraq is considered an emerging middle power and is a founding member of the United Nations, the OPEC, the Arab League, the OIC, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the IMF. Since 2005, Iraq has experienced economic and military growth, international investment, and a decline in domestic attacks. However, political instability and the inability of parliament to form a working government have been accompanied by violence against government institutions.
|Country codes||IQ, IRQ (ISO 3166-1)|
|Official name||Republic of Iraq|
|Official languages||Arabic and Kurdish|
|Religion||95% Shia Islam, 5% Christianity|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (AST)|
|Member of||United Nations|
|Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|
|Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries|
|Population density||93 per Km2 (240 people per mi2)|
|Urban Population||73.1 % of the population is urban (29,422,695 people in 2020)|
|Median age||21.0 years|
|Total area||The total land area is 434,320 Km2 (167,692 sq. miles)|
|Highest point||Cheekha Dar (3 611 m, 11 847 ft)|
|Lowest point||Persian Gulf|
|GDP per capita||$ 4,775 (World Bank, 2021)|
|Currency||Iraqi dinar (ع.د, IQD)|
|Internet TLD||.iq (click here to find and register domain name)|
|Country Wikipedia Page||Iraq Wikipedia Page|
Main Cities by Population in Iraq
|3||Al Mawsil al Jadidah||2,065,597|
|4||Al Basrah al Qadimah||2,015,483|
|53||Nahiyat Saddat al Hindiyah||30,622|
|64||Nahiyat ash Shinafiyah||22,643|
|67||Nahiyat al Fuhud||21,551|
|68||‘Anat al Qadimah||19,719|
|69||‘Ali al Gharbi||19,711|